The Harmandir Sahib , Known also Darbar Sahib and informally referred to as the “Golden Temple”, is a prominent Sikh Gurdwara located in Amritsar, Punjab, India. It was built by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev ji, in the 16th Century. In 1604, Guru Arjan Dev completed the Adi Granth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, and placed it in this Gurudwara. Golden Temple Amritsar is from one of the Seven Wonders of India.
There are four entrance doors to get into the Harmandir Sahib, which is a symbol of the sincerity of the Sikhism to all religions. The present Gurdwara was rebuilt in 1764 by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia with the help of other Sikh Misls. In the Nineteenth century, Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the Punjab region and covered the upper floors of the Gurdwara with gold, which gives it its typical look and its English name Golden Temple.
The Harimandir Sahib is a Holy place in Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib the holiest book of Sikhism is found here.
The Harimandir Sahib was constructed with intension to have a place of worship for men and women from all religions to come and worship God equally. Near about 100 thousands of people from all over the World visits this tourism place daily and Worships.
Guru Arjan Dev, the Fifth Sikh Guru, think up the idea of having a central place of worship for the Sikhs and he himself planned the architecture of Sri Harmandir Sahib.
Earlier planning of excavate the holy tank (Amritsar or Amrit Sarovar ) was drawn by Guru Amar Das Ji, the third Guru in Shikhism, but it was actually implemented by Guru Ramdas Sahib under the supervision of Baba Budha ji.
The land for the site was acquired by the earlier Guru Sahibs by purchasing from the Zamindars (Landlords) of native villages. The plan to set up a town was also made. Thus, the construction work on the Sarovar (the tank) and the town started almost at the same time in 1570. This work of both the projects completed in 1577 A. D
Under the guidance of the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji (1581–1606), the full-fledged Gurdwara was built. In December 1588, Guru Arjan Dev started the construction of the Gurdwara. The foundation stone was laid down by Guru Arjan Sahib himself in December 1588.
The Gurdwara was completed in 1604. Guru Arjan Sahib placed the Guru Granth Sahib in it and allotted Baba Buddha as the first Granthi (reader) of Granth Sahib on August 1604.
During the 18th (1757) century “Jahan Khan“one of Ahmed Shah Abdali’s [Afganisthan] Generals, attacked this Gurudwara and thus it substantially rebuilt in the 1776.
In response to this attack Sikh Army was sent to hunt down the Afghan force. Both armed forces met each other five miles away from Amritsar; Jahan Khan’s armed forces were destroyed.
Sri Harmandir Sahib is built on a square platform measuring 67ft. in the centre of the Sarovar (tank). The temple itself is 40.5ft. Square. It has doors in each direction on the East, West, North and South. The Darshani Deori (a curve) stands at the shore end of the walkway. The door frame of the arch is about 10ft in height and 8.6 ft in breath. The door panels are decorated with artistic style. It opens on to the walkway or bridge that leads to the main building of Sri Harmandir Sahib. It is 202 feet in length and 21 feet in width.
The bridge is connected with the 13 feet wide ‘Pardakshna’ (circumambulatory) path. It runs round the main shrine and it leads to the ‘Har ki Paure’ (Steps of God). On the first floor of ‘Har ki Paure’, there is continuous reading of Guru Granth Sahib.
The main Temple of Sri Harmandir Sahib, functionally and technically is a three-storied one. The front, which faces the bridge, is decorated with repeated cusped arches. The roof of this first floor is at the height of the 26.9 feet.
On top of the first floor there is 4 feet high parapet rise on all the sides which also has four ‘Mamtees’ on the four corners with exactly on top of the central hall of the main sanctuary rises the third story. It is a small and square room with three gates. A regular reading of Guru Granth Sahib, a holiest Text in Sikhism is held there.
On top of this room stands the low fluted ‘Gumbaz’ (dome) in lotus petal pattern which supports the ‘Kalash’ having a beautiful ‘Chhatri’ at the end.
Sri Harmandir Sahib Architecture is a unique synchronization of the Muslims and the Hindus way of construction and this could be world’s finest architectural specimen. It is often referred that this architecture has created an independent school of architecture in Sikhism, in the Indian history of art.